- Add support for Python 3.10 and 3.11 (as of 3.11.0a4).
- Add missing Trove classifier showing support for Python 3.9.
- Add some more entries to
- Make the C implementation of the
__providedBy__descriptor stop ignoring all errors raised when accessing the instance’s
__provides__. Now it behaves like the Python version and only catches
AttributeError. The previous behaviour could lead to crashing the interpreter in cases of recursion and errors. See issue 239.
- Update the
str()of various objects to be shorter and more informative. In many cases, the
repr()is now something that can be evaluated to produce an equal object. For example, what was previously printed as
<implementedBy builtins.list>is now shown as
classImplements(list, IMutableSequence, IIterable). See issue 236.
implementedBy(Cls) + ISomething) try harder to preserve a consistent resolution order when the two arguments share overlapping pieces of the interface inheritance hierarchy. Previously, the right hand side was always put at the end of the resolution order, which could easily produce invalid orders. See issue 193.
- No changes from 5.3.0a1
- Improve the repr of
zope.interface.Providesto remove ambiguity about what is being provided. This is especially helpful diagnosing IRO issues.
- Allow subclasses of
VerifyingAdapterRegistry) to have control over the data structures. This allows persistent implementations such as those based on ZODB to choose more scalable options (e.g., BTrees instead of dicts). See issue 224.
- Fix a reference counting issue in
BaseAdapterRegistrythat could lead to references to interfaces being kept around even when all utilities/adapters/subscribers providing that interface have been removed. This is mostly an issue for persistent implementations. Note that this only corrects the issue moving forward, it does not solve any already corrupted reference counts. See issue 227.
- Add the method
BaseAdapterRegistry.rebuild(). This can be used to fix the reference counting issue mentioned above, as well as to update the data structures when custom data types have changed.
- Add the interface method
BaseAdapterRegistry.subscribed()for querying directly registered subscribers. See issue 230.
- Add the maintenance method
Components.rebuildUtilityRegistryFromLocalCache(). Most users will not need this, but it can be useful if the
Components.utilitiesregistry is suspected to be out of sync with the
Componentsobject itself (this might happen to persistent
Componentsimplementations in the face of bugs).
- Fix the
ClassProvidesdescriptors to stop allowing redundant interfaces (those already implemented by the underlying class or meta class) to produce an inconsistent resolution order. This is similar to the change in
@implementerin 5.1.0, and resolves inconsistent resolution orders with
zope.location. See issue 207.
- Add documentation section
Persistency and Equality(#218).
- Create arm64 wheels.
- Add support for Python 3.9.
- Make sure to call each invariant only once when validating invariants. Previously, invariants could be called multiple times because when an invariant is defined in an interface, it’s found by in all interfaces inheriting from that interface. See pull request 215.
Fix the method definitions of
subscribers. Previously, they all were defined to accept a
namekeyword argument, but subscribers have no names and the implementation of that interface did not accept that argument. See issue 208.
Fix a potential reference leak in the C optimizations. Previously, applications that dynamically created unique
Specificationobjects (e.g., used
@implementeron dynamic classes) could notice a growth of small objects over time leading to increased garbage collection times. See issue 216.
This leak could prevent interfaces used as the bases of other interfaces from being garbage collected. Those interfaces will now be collected.
One way in which this would manifest was that
weakref.refobjects (and things built upon them, like
Weak[Key|Value]Dictionary) would continue to have access to the original object even if there were no other visible references to Python and the original object should have been collected. This could be especially problematic for the
WeakKeyDictionarywhen combined with dynamic or local (created in the scope of a function) interfaces, since interfaces are hashed based just on their name and module name. See the linked issue for an example of a resulting
Note that such potential errors are not new, they are just once again a possibility.
classImplements(cls, *iface)ignore redundant interfaces. If the class already implements an interface through inheritance, it is no longer redeclared specifically for cls. This solves many instances of inconsistent resolution orders, while still allowing the interface to be declared for readability and maintenance purposes. See issue 199.
Remove all bare
except:statements. Previously, when accessing special attributes such as
__conform__, this package wrapped such access in a bare
except:statement, meaning that many errors could pass silently; typically this would result in a fallback path being taken and sometimes (like with
providedBy()) the result would be non-sensical. This is especially true when those attributes are implemented with descriptors. Now, only
AttributeErroris caught. This makes errors more obvious.
Obviously, this means that some exceptions will be propagated differently than before. In particular,
RuntimeErrorraised by Acquisition in the case of circular containment will now be propagated. Previously, when adapting such a broken object, a
TypeErrorwould be the common result, but now it will be a more informative
In addition, ZODB errors like
POSKeyErrorcould now be propagated where previously they would ignored by this package.
See issue 200.
Require that the second argument (bases) to
InterfaceClassis a tuple. This only matters when directly using
InterfaceClassto create new interfaces dynamically. Previously, an individual interface was allowed, but did not work correctly. Now it is consistent with
typeand requires a tuple.
Let interfaces define custom
__adapt__methods. This implements the other side of the PEP 246 adaptation protocol: objects being adapted could already implement
__conform__if they know about the interface, and now interfaces can implement
__adapt__if they know about particular objects. There is no performance penalty for interfaces that do not supply custom
This includes the ability to add new methods, or override existing interface methods using the new
See issue 3.
Make the internal singleton object returned by APIs like
directlyProvidedByfor objects that implement or provide no interfaces more immutable. Previously an internal cache could be mutated. See issue 204.
- Ensure that objects that implement no interfaces (such as direct
object) still include
Interfaceitself in their
__sro___. This fixes adapter registry lookups for such objects when the adapter is registered for
Interface. See issue 197.
- Ensure the resolution order for
InterfaceClassis consistent. See issue 192.
- Ensure the resolution order for
collections.OrderedDictis consistent on CPython 2. (It was already consistent on Python 3 and PyPy).
- Fix the handling of the
ZOPE_INTERFACE_STRICT_IROenvironment variable. Previously,
ZOPE_INTERFACE_STRICT_ROwas read, in contrast with the documentation. See issue 194.
Make an internal singleton object returned by APIs like
directlyProvidedByimmutable. Previously, it was fully mutable and allowed changing its
__bases___. That could potentially lead to wrong results in pathological corner cases. See issue 158.
PURE_PYTHONenvironment variable at runtime instead of just at wheel build time. A value of 0 forces the C extensions to be used (even on PyPy) failing if they aren’t present. Any other value forces the Python implementation to be used, ignoring the C extensions. See PR 151.
Cache the result of
InterfaceClassas a speed optimization. The method is called very often (i.e several hundred thousand times during Plone 5.2 startup). Because the hash value never changes it can be cached. This improves test performance from 0.614s down to 0.575s (1.07x faster). In a real world Plone case a reindex index came down from 402s to 320s (1.26x faster). See PR 156.
Change the C classes
SpecificationBaseand its subclass
ClassProvidesBaseto store implementation attributes in their structures instead of their instance dictionaries. This eliminates the use of an undocumented private C API function, and helps make some instances require less memory. See PR 154.
Reduce memory usage in other ways based on observations of usage patterns in Zope (3) and Plone code bases.
- Specifications with no dependents are common (more than 50%) so
avoid allocating a
WeakKeyDictionaryunless we need it.
- Likewise, tagged values are relatively rare, so don’t allocate a dictionary to hold them until they are used.
__slots___or the C equivalent
tp_membersin more common places. Note that this removes the ability to set arbitrary instance variables on certain objects. See PR 155.
The changes in this release resulted in a 7% memory reduction after loading about 6,000 modules that define about 2,200 interfaces.
Details of many private attributes have changed, and external use of those private attributes may break. In particular, the lifetime and default value of
- Specifications with no dependents are common (more than 50%) so avoid allocating a
Remove support for hashing uninitialized interfaces. This could only be done by subclassing
InterfaceClass. This has generated a warning since it was first added in 2011 (3.6.5). Please call the
InterfaceClassconstructor or otherwise set the appropriate fields in your subclass before attempting to hash or sort it. See issue 157.
Remove unneeded override of the
zope.interface.declarations.Implements. Watching a reindex index process in ZCatalog with on a Py-Spy after 10k samples the time for
.adapter._lookupwas reduced from 27.5s to 18.8s (~1.5x faster). Overall reindex index time shrunk from 369s to 293s (1.26x faster). See PR 161.
Make the Python implementation closer to the C implementation by ignoring all exceptions, not just
AttributeError, during (parts of) interface adaptation. See issue 163.
.adapter._subscriptions: By loading
components.getinto a local variable before entering the loop a bytcode “LOAD_FAST 0 (components)” in the loop can be eliminated. In Plone, while running all tests, average speedup of the “owntime” of
_lookupis ~5x. See PR 167.
__all__declarations to all modules. This helps tools that do auto-completion and documentation and results in less cluttered results. Wildcard (“*”) are not recommended and may be affected. See issue 153.
verifyObjectfor builtin types like
dictthat have methods taking an optional, unnamed argument with no default value like
dict.pop. On PyPy3, the verification is strict, but on PyPy2 (as on all versions of CPython) those methods cannot be verified and are ignored. See issue 118.
Update the common interfaces
IUniqueMemberWriteSequenceto no longer require methods that were removed from Python 3 on Python 3, such as
tupleproperly verify as
IReadSequence,respectively on all versions of Python.
Method. These contain the name of the defining interface and the attribute. For methods, it also includes the signature.
Change the error strings raised by
verifyClass. They now include more human-readable information and exclude extraneous lines and spaces. See issue 170.
This will break consumers (such as doctests) that depended on the exact error messages.
verifyClassreport all errors, if the candidate object has multiple detectable violations. Previously they reported only the first error. See issue.
Like the above, this will break consumers depending on the exact output of error messages if more than one error is present.
zope.interface.common.io. These modules define interfaces based on the ABCs defined in the standard library
iomodules, respectively. Importing these modules will make the standard library concrete classes that are registered with those ABCs declare the appropriate interface. See issue 138.
zope.interface.common.builtins. This module defines interfaces of common builtin types, such as
IDict, etc. These interfaces extend the appropriate interfaces from
numbers, and the standard library classes implement them after importing this module. This is intended as a replacement for third-party packages like dolmen.builtins. See issue 138.
superobjects. For instance, if class
Basewhich in turn implements
providedBy(super(Derived, derived))will return
[IBase]. Previously it would have returned
[IDerived](in general, it would previously have returned whatever would have been returned without
Along with this change, adapter registries will unpack
superobjects into their
__self___before passing it to the factory. Together, this means that
component.getAdapter(super(Derived, self), ITarget)is now meaningful.
See issue 11.
Fix a potential interpreter crash in the low-level adapter registry lookup functions. See issue 11.
Adopt Python’s standard C3 resolution order to compute the
__sro__of interfaces, with tweaks to support additional cases that are common in interfaces but disallowed for Python classes. Previously, an ad-hoc ordering that made no particular guarantees was used.
This has many beneficial properties, including the fact that base interface and base classes tend to appear near the end of the resolution order instead of the beginning. The resolution order in general should be more predictable and consistent.
In some cases, especially with complex interface inheritance trees or when manually providing or implementing interfaces, the resulting IRO may be quite different. This may affect adapter lookup.
The C3 order enforces some constraints in order to be able to guarantee a sensible ordering. Older versions of zope.interface did not impose similar constraints, so it was possible to create interfaces and declarations that are inconsistent with the C3 constraints. In that event, zope.interface will still produce a resolution order equal to the old order, but it won’t be guaranteed to be fully C3 compliant. In the future, strict enforcement of C3 order may be the default.
A set of environment variables and module constants allows controlling several aspects of this new behaviour. It is possible to request warnings about inconsistent resolution orders encountered, and even to forbid them. Differences between the C3 resolution order and the previous order can be logged, and, in extreme cases, the previous order can still be used (this ability will be removed in the future). For details, see the documentation for
Make inherited tagged values in interfaces respect the resolution order (
__iro__), as method and attribute lookup does. Previously tagged values could give inconsistent results. See issue 190.
getDirectTaggedValue(and related methods) to interfaces to allow accessing tagged values irrespective of inheritance. See issue 190.
Interfaceis always the last item in the
__sro__. This is usually the case, but if classes that do not implement any interfaces are part of a class inheritance hierarchy,
Interfacecould be assigned too high a priority. See issue 8.
Implement sorting, equality, and hashing in C for
Interfaceobjects. In micro benchmarks, this makes those operations 40% to 80% faster. This translates to a 20% speed up in querying adapters.
Note that this changes certain implementation details. In particular,
InterfaceClassnow has a non-default metaclass, and it is enforced that
__module__in instances of
See PR 183.
Drop support for Python 3.4.
getTaggedValueTagsin interfaces. They now include inherited values by following
__bases__. See PR 144.
This may be a breaking change.
Add support for Python 3.8.
- Add support for Python 3.7
verifyObjectfor class objects with staticmethods on Python 3. See issue 126.
- Simplify the caching of utility-registration data. In addition to simplification, avoids spurious test failures when checking for leaks in tests with persistent registries. See pull 84.
ValueErrorwhen non-text names are passed to adapter registry methods: prevents corruption of lookup caches.
- Avoid a warning from the C compiler. (https://github.com/zopefoundation/zope.interface/issues/71)
- Add support for Python 3.6.
- Correct typos and ReST formatting errors in documentation.
- Add API documentation for the adapter registry.
- Ensure that the
LICENSE.txtfile is included in built wheels.
- Fix C optimizations broken on Py3k. See the Python bug at: http://bugs.python.org/issue15657 (https://github.com/zopefoundation/zope.interface/issues/60)
- Fix equality testing of
implementedByobjects and proxies. (https://github.com/zopefoundation/zope.interface/issues/55)
- Support Components subclasses that are not hashable. (https://github.com/zopefoundation/zope.interface/issues/53)
- Add the ability to sort the objects returned by
implementedBy. This is compatible with the way interface classes sort so they can be used together in ordered containers like BTrees. (https://github.com/zopefoundation/zope.interface/issues/42)
setuptoolsa hard dependency of
- Change a linear algorithm (O(n)) in
Components.unregisterUtilityinto a dictionary lookup (O(1)) for hashable components. This substantially improves the time taken to manipulate utilities in large registries at the cost of some additional memory usage. (https://github.com/zopefoundation/zope.interface/issues/46)
- Add support for Python 3.5
- Drop support for Python 2.6 and 3.2.
- Fix installation without a C compiler on Python 3.5 (https://github.com/zopefoundation/zope.interface/issues/24).
- Add support for PyPy3.
- Remove unittest assertions deprecated in Python3.x.
zope.interface.document.asReStructuredText, which formats the generated text for an interface using ReST double-backtick markers.
- Add support for Python 3.4.
boostrap.pyto version 2.2.
@named(name)declaration, that specifies the component name, so it does not have to be passed in during registration.
- Fix a bug where a decorated method caused false positive failures on
- Fix a bug that was revealed by porting zope.traversing. During a loop, the
loop body modified a weakref dict causing a
- Fleshed out PyPI Trove classifiers.
- Add support for Python 3.3.
- Restored ability to install the package in the absence of
- LP #1055223: Fix test which depended on dictionary order and failed randomly in Python 3.3.
- Drop explicit
DeprecationWarningsfor “class advice” APIS (these APIs are still deprecated under Python 2.x, and still raise an exception under Python 3.x, but no longer cause a warning to be emitted under Python 2.x).
- Automated build of Sphinx HTML docs and running doctest snippets via tox.
- Deprecate the “class advice” APIs from
classProvides. In their place, prefer the equivalent class decorators:
@provider. Code which uses the deprecated APIs will not work as expected under Py3k.
- Remove use of ‘2to3’ and associated fixers when installing under Py3k. The code is now in a “compatible subset” which supports Python 2.6, 2.7, and 3.2, including PyPy 1.8 (the version compatible with the 2.7 language spec).
- Drop explicit support for Python 2.4 / 2.5 / 3.1.
- Add support for PyPy.
- Add support for continuous integration using
- Add ‘setup.py dev’ alias (runs
setup.py developplus installs
- Add ‘setup.py docs’ alias (installs
- Replace all unittest coverage previously accomplished via doctests with
unittests. The doctests have been moved into a
docssection, managed as a Sphinx collection.
- LP #910987: Ensure that the semantics of the
zope.interface.adapter.LookupBaseare the same in both the C and Python implementations.
- LP #900906: Avoid exceptions due to tne new
__qualname__attribute added in Python 3.3 (see PEP 3155 for rationale). Thanks to Antoine Pitrou for the patch.
- New module
zope.interface.registry. This is code moved from
zope.component.registrywhich implements a basic nonperistent component registry as
zope.interface.registry.Components. This class was moved from
zope.componentto make porting systems (such as Pyramid) that rely only on a basic component registry to Python 3 possible without needing to port the entirety of the
zope.componentpackage. Backwards compatibility import shims have been left behind in
zope.component, so this change will not break any existing code.
zope.eventto test events sent by Components implementation. The
zope.interfacepackage does not have a hard dependency on
zope.event, but if
zope.eventis importable, it will send component registration events when methods of an instance of
- New interfaces added to support
- No longer Python 2.4 compatible (tested under 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, and 3.2).
- Move changes from 3.6.2 - 3.6.5 to a new 3.7.x release line.
- Fix sporadic failures on x86-64 platforms in tests of rich comparisons of interfaces.
LP #570942: Now correctly compare interfaces from different modules but with the same names.
N.B.: This is a less intrusive / destabilizing fix than the one applied in 3.6.3: we only fix the underlying cmp-alike function, rather than adding the other “rich comparison” functions.
Revert to software as released with 3.6.1 for “stable” 3.6 release branch.
- LP #811792: work around buggy behavior in some subclasses of
zope.interface.interface.InterfaceClass, which invoke
__name__. The workaround returns a fixed constant hash in such cases, and issues a
- LP #804832: Under PyPy,
zope.interfaceshould not build its C extension. Also, prevent attempting to build it under Jython.
- Add a tox.ini for easier xplatform testing.
- Fix testing deprecation warnings issued when tested under Py3K.
- LP 804951: InterfaceClass instances were unhashable under Python 3.x.
- LP #570942: Now correctly compare interfaces from different modules but with the same names.
- Moved detailed documentation out-of-line from PyPI page, linking instead to http://docs.zope.org/zope.interface .
- Fixes for small issues when running tests under Python 3.2 using
- LP # 675064: Specify return value type for C optimizations module init under Python 3: undeclared value caused warnings, and segfaults on some 64 bit architectures.
- setup.py now raises RuntimeError if you don’t have Distutils installed when running under Python 3.
- A non-ASCII character in the changelog made 3.6.0 uninstallable on Python 3 systems with another default encoding than UTF-8.
- Fix compiler warnings under GCC 4.3.3.
LP #185974: Clear the cache used by
Specification.changed. Thanks to Jacob Holm for the patch.
Add support for Python 3.1. Contributors:
Lennart Regebro Martin v Loewis Thomas Lotze Wolfgang Schnerring
The 3.1 support is completely backwards compatible. However, the implements syntax used under Python 2.X does not work under 3.X, since it depends on how metaclasses are implemented and this has changed. Instead it now supports a decorator syntax (also under Python 2.X):
class Foo: implements(IFoo) ...
can now also be written:
@implementer(IFoo): class Foo: ...
There are 2to3 fixers available to do this change automatically in the zope.fixers package.
Python 2.3 is no longer supported.
- Use the standard Python doctest module instead of zope.testing.doctest, which has been deprecated.
- Fix an edge case: make providedBy() work when a class has ‘__provides__’ in its __slots__ (see http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.web.zope.devel/22490)
- BaseAdapterRegistry.unregister, unsubscribe: Remove empty portions of the data structures when something is removed. This avoids leaving references to global objects (interfaces) that may be slated for removal from the calling application.
- verifyObject: use getattr instead of hasattr to test for object attributes in order to let exceptions other than AttributeError raised by properties propagate to the caller
- Add Sphinx-based documentation building to the package buildout
configuration. Use the
bin/docscommand after buildout.
- Improve package description a bit. Unify changelog entries formatting.
- Change package’s mailing list address to zope-dev at zope.org as zope3-dev at zope.org is now retired.
- Fix declaration of _zope_interface_coptimizations, it’s not a top level package.
- Add a DocTestSuite for odd.py module, so their tests are run.
- Allow to bootstrap on Jython.
- Fix https://bugs.launchpad.net/zope3/3.3/+bug/98388: ISpecification was missing a declaration for __iro__.
- Add optional code optimizations support, which allows the building of C code optimizations to fail (Jython).
_flattenwith a non-recursive implementation, effectively making it 3x faster.
- Fix a setup bug that prevented installation from source on systems without setuptools.
- Final release for 3.4.0.
- When checking whether an object is already registered, use identity comparison, to allow adding registering with picky custom comparison methods.
- Made a reference to OverflowWarning, which disappeared in Python 2.5, conditional.
Refactor the adapter-lookup algorithim to make it much simpler and faster.
Also, implement more of the adapter-lookup logic in C, making debugging of application code easier, since there is less infrastructre code to step through.
Treat objects without interface declarations as if they declared that they provide
Add a number of richer new adapter-registration interfaces that provide greater control and introspection.
Add a new interface decorator to zope.interface that allows the setting of tagged values on an interface at definition time (see zope.interface.taggedValue).
- A bug in multi-adapter lookup sometimes caused incorrect adapters to be returned.
- Fix packaging bug: ‘package_dir’ must be a relative path.
- Packaging change: suppress inclusion of ‘setup.cfg’ in ‘sdist’ builds.
- Corresponds to the version of the zope.interface package shipped as part of the Zope 3.2.0 release.
- Corresponds to the version of the zope.interface package shipped as part of the Zope 3.1.0 release.
- Made attribute resolution order consistent with component lookup order, i.e. new-style class MRO semantics.
- Deprecate ‘isImplementedBy’ and ‘isImplementedByInstancesOf’ APIs in favor of ‘implementedBy’ and ‘providedBy’.
- Corresponds to the version of the zope.interface package shipped as part of the Zope X3.0.1 release.
- Fix a bug reported by James Knight, which caused adapter registries to fail occasionally to reflect declaration changes.
- Corresponds to the version of the zope.interface package shipped as part of the Zope X3.0.0 release.