Declaring and Checking The Interfaces of Objects

Declaring what interfaces an object implements or provides, and later being able to check those, is an important part of this package. Declaring interfaces, in particular, can be done both statically at object definition time and dynamically later on.

The functionality that allows declaring and checking interfaces is provided directly in the zope.interface module. It is described by the interface zope.interface.interfaces.IInterfaceDeclaration. We will first look at that interface, and then we will look more carefully at each object it documents, including providing examples.

interface zope.interface.interfaces.IInterfaceDeclaration[source]

Declare and check the interfaces of objects.

The functions defined in this interface are used to declare the interfaces that objects provide and to query the interfaces that have been declared.

Interfaces can be declared for objects in two ways:

  • Interfaces are declared for instances of the object’s class
  • Interfaces are declared for the object directly.

The interfaces declared for an object are, therefore, the union of interfaces declared for the object directly and the interfaces declared for instances of the object’s class.

Note that we say that a class implements the interfaces provided by it’s instances. An instance can also provide interfaces directly. The interfaces provided by an object are the union of the interfaces provided directly and the interfaces implemented by the class.

This interface is implemented by zope.interface.

Interface

The base class used to create new interfaces

taggedValue(key, value)

Attach a tagged value to an interface while defining the interface.

This is a way of executing IElement.setTaggedValue() from the definition of the interface. For example:

class IFoo(Interface):
    taggedValue('key', 'value')
invariant(checker_function)

Attach an invariant checker function to an interface while defining it.

Invariants can later be validated against particular implementations by calling IInterface.validateInvariants().

For example:

def check_range(ob):
    if ob.max < ob.min:
        raise ValueError("max value is less than min value")

class IRange(Interface):
    min = Attribute("The min value")
    max = Attribute("The max value")

    invariant(check_range)
interfacemethod(method)

A decorator that transforms a method specification into an implementation method.

This is used to override methods of Interface or provide new methods. Definitions using this decorator will not appear in IInterface.names(). It is possible to have an implementation method and a method specification of the same name.

For example:

class IRange(Interface):
    @interfacemethod
    def __adapt__(self, obj):
        if isinstance(obj, range):
            # Return the builtin ``range`` as-is
            return obj
        return super(type(IRange), self).__adapt__(obj)

You can use super to call the parent class functionality. Note that the zero-argument version (super().__adapt__) works on Python 3.6 and above, but prior to that the two-argument version must be used, and the class must be explicitly passed as the first argument.

New in version 5.1.0.

providedBy(ob)

Return the interfaces provided by an object.

This is the union of the interfaces directly provided by an object and interfaces implemented by it’s class.

The value returned is an IDeclaration.

implementedBy(class_)

Return the interfaces implemented for a class’s instances.

The value returned is an IDeclaration.

classImplements(class_, *interfaces)

Declare additional interfaces implemented for instances of a class.

The arguments after the class are one or more interfaces or interface specifications (IDeclaration objects).

The interfaces given (including the interfaces in the specifications) are added to any interfaces previously declared.

Consider the following example:

class C(A, B):
   ...

classImplements(C, I1, I2)

Instances of C provide I1, I2, and whatever interfaces instances of A and B provide. This is equivalent to:

@implementer(I1, I2)
class C(A, B):
    pass
classImplementsFirst(cls, interface)

See zope.interface.classImplementsFirst().

implementer(*interfaces)

Create a decorator for declaring interfaces implemented by a factory.

A callable is returned that makes an implements declaration on objects passed to it.

classImplementsOnly(class_, *interfaces)

Declare the only interfaces implemented by instances of a class.

The arguments after the class are one or more interfaces or interface specifications (IDeclaration objects).

The interfaces given (including the interfaces in the specifications) replace any previous declarations.

Consider the following example:

class C(A, B):
   ...

classImplements(C, IA, IB. IC)
classImplementsOnly(C. I1, I2)

Instances of C provide only I1, I2, and regardless of whatever interfaces instances of A and B implement.

implementer_only(*interfaces)

Create a decorator for declaring the only interfaces implemented.

A callable is returned that makes an implements declaration on objects passed to it.

directlyProvidedBy(object)

Return the interfaces directly provided by the given object.

The value returned is an IDeclaration.

directlyProvides(object, *interfaces)

Declare interfaces declared directly for an object.

The arguments after the object are one or more interfaces or interface specifications (IDeclaration objects).

Caution

The interfaces given (including the interfaces in the specifications) replace interfaces previously declared for the object. See alsoProvides() to add additional interfaces.

Consider the following example:

class C(A, B):
   ...

ob = C()
directlyProvides(ob, I1, I2)

The object, ob provides I1, I2, and whatever interfaces instances have been declared for instances of C.

To remove directly provided interfaces, use directlyProvidedBy and subtract the unwanted interfaces. For example:

directlyProvides(ob, directlyProvidedBy(ob)-I2)

removes I2 from the interfaces directly provided by ob. The object, ob no longer directly provides I2, although it might still provide I2 if it’s class implements I2.

To add directly provided interfaces, use directlyProvidedBy and include additional interfaces. For example:

directlyProvides(ob, directlyProvidedBy(ob), I2)

adds I2 to the interfaces directly provided by ob.

alsoProvides(object, *interfaces)

Declare additional interfaces directly for an object.

For example:

alsoProvides(ob, I1)

is equivalent to:

directlyProvides(ob, directlyProvidedBy(ob), I1)
noLongerProvides(object, interface)

Remove an interface from the list of an object’s directly provided interfaces.

For example:

noLongerProvides(ob, I1)

is equivalent to:

directlyProvides(ob, directlyProvidedBy(ob) - I1)

with the exception that if I1 is an interface that is provided by ob through the class’s implementation, ValueError is raised.

implements(*interfaces)

Declare interfaces implemented by instances of a class.

Deprecated since version 5.0: This only works for Python 2. The implementer decorator is preferred for all versions.

This function is called in a class definition (Python 2.x only).

The arguments are one or more interfaces or interface specifications (IDeclaration objects).

The interfaces given (including the interfaces in the specifications) are added to any interfaces previously declared.

Previous declarations include declarations for base classes unless implementsOnly was used.

This function is provided for convenience. It provides a more convenient way to call classImplements. For example:

implements(I1)

is equivalent to calling:

classImplements(C, I1)

after the class has been created.

Consider the following example (Python 2.x only):

class C(A, B):
  implements(I1, I2)

Instances of C implement I1, I2, and whatever interfaces instances of A and B implement.

implementsOnly(*interfaces)

Declare the only interfaces implemented by instances of a class.

Deprecated since version 5.0: This only works for Python 2. The implementer_only decorator is preferred for all versions.

This function is called in a class definition (Python 2.x only).

The arguments are one or more interfaces or interface specifications (IDeclaration objects).

Previous declarations including declarations for base classes are overridden.

This function is provided for convenience. It provides a more convenient way to call classImplementsOnly. For example:

implementsOnly(I1)

is equivalent to calling:

classImplementsOnly(I1)

after the class has been created.

Consider the following example (Python 2.x only):

class C(A, B):
  implementsOnly(I1, I2)

Instances of C implement I1, I2, regardless of what instances of A and B implement.

classProvides(*interfaces)

Declare interfaces provided directly by a class.

Deprecated since version 5.0: This only works for Python 2. The provider decorator is preferred for all versions.

This function is called in a class definition.

The arguments are one or more interfaces or interface specifications (IDeclaration objects).

The given interfaces (including the interfaces in the specifications) are used to create the class’s direct-object interface specification. An error will be raised if the module class has an direct interface specification. In other words, it is an error to call this function more than once in a class definition.

Note that the given interfaces have nothing to do with the interfaces implemented by instances of the class.

This function is provided for convenience. It provides a more convenient way to call directlyProvides for a class. For example:

classProvides(I1)

is equivalent to calling:

directlyProvides(theclass, I1)

after the class has been created.

provider(*interfaces)

A class decorator version of classProvides.

moduleProvides(*interfaces)

Declare interfaces provided by a module.

This function is used in a module definition.

The arguments are one or more interfaces or interface specifications (IDeclaration objects).

The given interfaces (including the interfaces in the specifications) are used to create the module’s direct-object interface specification. An error will be raised if the module already has an interface specification. In other words, it is an error to call this function more than once in a module definition.

This function is provided for convenience. It provides a more convenient way to call directlyProvides for a module. For example:

moduleImplements(I1)

is equivalent to:

directlyProvides(sys.modules[__name__], I1)
Declaration(*interfaces)

Create an interface specification.

The arguments are one or more interfaces or interface specifications (IDeclaration objects).

A new interface specification (IDeclaration) with the given interfaces is returned.

Declaring Interfaces

To declare an interface itself, extend the Interface base class.

interface zope.interface.Interface
zope.interface.taggedValue(key, value)[source]

Attaches a tagged value to an interface at definition time.

zope.interface.invariant(call)[source]
zope.interface.interfacemethod(func)[source]

Convert a method specification to an actual method of the interface.

This is a decorator that functions like staticmethod et al.

The primary use of this decorator is to allow interface definitions to define the __adapt__ method, but other interface methods can be overridden this way too.

Declaring The Interfaces of Objects

implementer

class zope.interface.implementer(*interfaces)[source]

Bases: object

Declare the interfaces implemented by instances of a class.

This function is called as a class decorator.

The arguments are one or more interfaces or interface specifications (IDeclaration objects).

The interfaces given (including the interfaces in the specifications) are added to any interfaces previously declared, unless the interface is already implemented.

Previous declarations include declarations for base classes unless implementsOnly was used.

This function is provided for convenience. It provides a more convenient way to call classImplements. For example:

@implementer(I1)
class C(object):
    pass

is equivalent to calling:

classImplements(C, I1)

after the class has been created.

See also

classImplements The change history provided there applies to this function too.

implementer_only

class zope.interface.implementer_only(*interfaces)[source]

Bases: object

Declare the only interfaces implemented by instances of a class

This function is called as a class decorator.

The arguments are one or more interfaces or interface specifications (IDeclaration objects).

Previous declarations including declarations for base classes are overridden.

This function is provided for convenience. It provides a more convenient way to call classImplementsOnly. For example:

@implementer_only(I1)
class C(object): pass

is equivalent to calling:

classImplementsOnly(I1)

after the class has been created.

classImplementsOnly

zope.interface.classImplementsOnly(cls, *interfaces)[source]

Declare the only interfaces implemented by instances of a class

The arguments after the class are one or more interfaces or interface specifications (IDeclaration objects).

The interfaces given (including the interfaces in the specifications) replace any previous declarations, including inherited definitions. If you wish to preserve inherited declarations, you can pass implementedBy(cls) in interfaces. This can be used to alter the interface resolution order.

Consider the following example:

>>> from zope.interface import implementedBy
>>> from zope.interface import implementer
>>> from zope.interface import classImplementsOnly
>>> from zope.interface import Interface
>>> class I1(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I2(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I3(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I4(Interface): pass
...
>>> @implementer(I3)
... class A(object):
...     pass
>>> @implementer(I4)
... class B(object):
...     pass
>>> class C(A, B):
...   pass
>>> classImplementsOnly(C, I1, I2)
>>> [i.getName() for i in implementedBy(C)]
['I1', 'I2']

Instances of C provide only I1, I2, and regardless of whatever interfaces instances of A and B implement.

classImplements

zope.interface.classImplements(cls, *interfaces)[source]

Declare additional interfaces implemented for instances of a class

The arguments after the class are one or more interfaces or interface specifications (IDeclaration objects).

The interfaces given (including the interfaces in the specifications) are added to any interfaces previously declared. An effort is made to keep a consistent C3 resolution order, but this cannot be guaranteed.

Changed in version 5.0.0: Each individual interface in interfaces may be added to either the beginning or end of the list of interfaces declared for cls, based on inheritance, in order to try to maintain a consistent resolution order. Previously, all interfaces were added to the end.

Changed in version 5.1.0: If cls is already declared to implement an interface (or derived interface) in interfaces through inheritance, the interface is ignored. Previously, it would redundantly be made direct base of cls, which often produced inconsistent interface resolution orders. Now, the order will be consistent, but may change. Also, if the __bases__ of the cls are later changed, the cls will no longer be considered to implement such an interface (changing the __bases__ of cls has never been supported).

Consider the following example:

>>> from zope.interface import Interface
>>> from zope.interface import classImplements
>>> from zope.interface.ro import is_consistent
>>> class I1(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I2(Interface): pass
...
>>> class IA(Interface): pass
...
>>> class IB(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I5(Interface): pass
...
>>> @implementer(IA)
... class A(object):
...     pass
>>> @implementer(IB)
... class B(object):
...     pass
>>> class C(A, B):
...   pass
>>> classImplements(C, I1, I2)
>>> [i.getName() for i in implementedBy(C)]
['I1', 'I2', 'IA', 'IB']

Instances of C provide I1 and I2, plus whatever instances of A and B provide.

>>> classImplements(C, I5)
>>> [i.getName() for i in implementedBy(C)]
['I1', 'I2', 'I5', 'IA', 'IB']

Instances of C now also provide I5. Notice how I5 was added to the end of the list of things provided directly by C.

If we ask a class to implement an interface that extends an interface it already implements, that interface will go at the beginning of the list, in order to preserve a consistent resolution order.

>>> class I6(I5): pass
>>> class I7(IA): pass
>>> classImplements(C, I6, I7)
>>> [i.getName() for i in implementedBy(C)]
['I6', 'I1', 'I2', 'I5', 'I7', 'IA', 'IB']
>>> is_consistent(implementedBy(C))
True

This cannot be used to introduce duplicates.

>>> classImplements(C, IA, IB, I1, I2)
>>> [i.getName() for i in implementedBy(C)]
['I6', 'I1', 'I2', 'I5', 'I7', 'IA', 'IB']

classImplementsFirst

zope.interface.classImplementsFirst(cls, iface)[source]

Declare that instances of cls additionally provide iface.

The second argument is an interface or interface specification. It is added as the highest priority (first in the IRO) interface; no attempt is made to keep a consistent resolution order.

New in version 5.0.0.

Consider the following example:

>>> from zope.interface import Interface
>>> from zope.interface import classImplements
>>> from zope.interface import classImplementsFirst
>>> class I1(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I2(Interface): pass
...
>>> class IA(Interface): pass
...
>>> class IB(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I5(Interface): pass
...
>>> @implementer(IA)
... class A(object):
...     pass
>>> @implementer(IB)
... class B(object):
...     pass
>>> class C(A, B):
...   pass
>>> classImplementsFirst(C, I2)
>>> classImplementsFirst(C, I1)
>>> [i.getName() for i in implementedBy(C)]
['I1', 'I2', 'IA', 'IB']

Instances of C provide I1, I2, I5, and whatever interfaces instances of A and B provide.

>>> classImplementsFirst(C, I5)
>>> [i.getName() for i in implementedBy(C)]
['I5', 'I1', 'I2', 'IA', 'IB']

Instances of C now also provide I5. Notice how I5 was added to the beginning of the list of things provided directly by C. Unlike classImplements, this ignores interface inheritance and does not attempt to ensure a consistent resolution order (except that it continues to elide interfaces already implemented through class inheritance):

.. doctest::
>>> class IBA(IB, IA):
...     pass
>>> classImplementsFirst(C, IBA)
>>> classImplementsFirst(C, IA)
>>> [i.getName() for i in implementedBy(C)]
['IBA', 'I5', 'I1', 'I2', 'IA', 'IB']

This cannot be used to introduce duplicates.

>>> len(implementedBy(C).declared)
4
>>> classImplementsFirst(C, IA)
>>> classImplementsFirst(C, IBA)
>>> classImplementsFirst(C, IA)
>>> classImplementsFirst(C, IBA)
>>> [i.getName() for i in implementedBy(C)]
['IBA', 'I5', 'I1', 'I2', 'IA', 'IB']
>>> len(implementedBy(C).declared)
4

directlyProvides

zope.interface.directlyProvides(object, *interfaces)[source]

Declare interfaces declared directly for an object

The arguments after the object are one or more interfaces or interface specifications (IDeclaration objects).

The interfaces given (including the interfaces in the specifications) replace interfaces previously declared for the object.

Consider the following example:

>>> from zope.interface import Interface
>>> from zope.interface import providedBy
>>> from zope.interface import directlyProvides
>>> class I1(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I2(Interface): pass
...
>>> class IA1(Interface): pass
...
>>> class IA2(Interface): pass
...
>>> class IB(Interface): pass
...
>>> class IC(Interface): pass
...
>>> @implementer(IA1, IA2)
... class A(object):
...     pass
>>> @implementer(IB)
... class B(object):
...     pass
>>> @implementer(IC)
... class C(A, B):
...     pass
>>> ob = C()
>>> directlyProvides(ob, I1, I2)
>>> int(I1 in providedBy(ob))
1
>>> int(I2 in providedBy(ob))
1
>>> int(IA1 in providedBy(ob))
1
>>> int(IA2 in providedBy(ob))
1
>>> int(IB in providedBy(ob))
1
>>> int(IC in providedBy(ob))
1

The object, ob provides I1, I2, and whatever interfaces instances have been declared for instances of C.

To remove directly provided interfaces, use directlyProvidedBy and subtract the unwanted interfaces. For example:

>>> from zope.interface import directlyProvidedBy
>>> directlyProvides(ob, directlyProvidedBy(ob)-I2)
>>> int(I1 in providedBy(ob))
1
>>> int(I2 in providedBy(ob))
0

removes I2 from the interfaces directly provided by ob. The object, ob no longer directly provides I2, although it might still provide I2 if its class implements I2.

To add directly provided interfaces, use directlyProvidedBy and include additional interfaces. For example:

>>> int(I2 in providedBy(ob))
0
>>> from zope.interface import directlyProvidedBy
>>> directlyProvides(ob, directlyProvidedBy(ob), I2)

adds I2 to the interfaces directly provided by ob:

>>> int(I2 in providedBy(ob))
1

We need to avoid setting this attribute on meta classes that don’t support descriptors.

We can do away with this check when we get rid of the old EC

alsoProvides

zope.interface.alsoProvides(object, *interfaces)[source]

Declare interfaces declared directly for an object

The arguments after the object are one or more interfaces or interface specifications (IDeclaration objects).

The interfaces given (including the interfaces in the specifications) are added to the interfaces previously declared for the object.

Consider the following example:

>>> from zope.interface import Interface
>>> from zope.interface import alsoProvides
>>> class I1(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I2(Interface): pass
...
>>> class IA1(Interface): pass
...
>>> class IA2(Interface): pass
...
>>> class IB(Interface): pass
...
>>> class IC(Interface): pass
...
>>> @implementer(IA1, IA2)
... class A(object):
...     pass
>>> @implementer(IB)
... class B(object):
...     pass
>>> @implementer(IC)
... class C(A, B):
...     pass
>>> ob = C()
>>> directlyProvides(ob, I1)
>>> int(I1 in providedBy(ob))
1
>>> int(I2 in providedBy(ob))
0
>>> int(IA1 in providedBy(ob))
1
>>> int(IA2 in providedBy(ob))
1
>>> int(IB in providedBy(ob))
1
>>> int(IC in providedBy(ob))
1
>>> alsoProvides(ob, I2)
>>> int(I1 in providedBy(ob))
1
>>> int(I2 in providedBy(ob))
1
>>> int(IA1 in providedBy(ob))
1
>>> int(IA2 in providedBy(ob))
1
>>> int(IB in providedBy(ob))
1
>>> int(IC in providedBy(ob))
1

The object, ob provides I1, I2, and whatever interfaces instances have been declared for instances of C. Notice that the alsoProvides just extends the provided interfaces.

noLongerProvides

zope.interface.noLongerProvides(object, interface)[source]

Removes a directly provided interface from an object.

Consider the following two interfaces:

>>> from zope.interface import Interface
>>> class I1(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I2(Interface): pass
...

I1 is provided through the class, I2 is directly provided by the object:

>>> @implementer(I1)
... class C(object):
...     pass
>>> c = C()
>>> alsoProvides(c, I2)
>>> I2.providedBy(c)
True

Remove I2 from c again:

>>> from zope.interface import noLongerProvides
>>> noLongerProvides(c, I2)
>>> I2.providedBy(c)
False

Removing an interface that is provided through the class is not possible:

>>> noLongerProvides(c, I1)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: Can only remove directly provided interfaces.

provider

class zope.interface.provider(*interfaces)[source]

Bases: object

Class decorator version of classProvides

For example:

>>> from zope.interface import Interface
>>> from zope.interface import implementer
>>> from zope.interface import provider
>>> class IFooFactory(Interface):
...     pass
>>> class IFoo(Interface):
...     pass
>>> @implementer(IFoo)
... @provider(IFooFactory)
... class C(object):
...     pass
>>> [i.getName() for i in C.__provides__]
['IFooFactory']
>>> [i.getName() for i in C().__provides__]
['IFoo']

Which is equivalent to:

>>> from zope.interface import Interface
>>> class IFoo(Interface): pass
...
>>> class IFooFactory(Interface): pass
...
>>> @implementer(IFoo)
... class C(object):
...   pass
>>> directlyProvides(C, IFooFactory)
>>> [i.getName() for i in C.__providedBy__]
['IFooFactory']
>>> [i.getName() for i in C().__providedBy__]
['IFoo']

moduleProvides

zope.interface.moduleProvides(*interfaces)[source]

Declare interfaces provided by a module

This function is used in a module definition.

The arguments are one or more interfaces or interface specifications (IDeclaration objects).

The given interfaces (including the interfaces in the specifications) are used to create the module’s direct-object interface specification. An error will be raised if the module already has an interface specification. In other words, it is an error to call this function more than once in a module definition.

This function is provided for convenience. It provides a more convenient way to call directlyProvides. For example:

moduleImplements(I1)

is equivalent to:

directlyProvides(sys.modules[__name__], I1)

named

class zope.interface.declarations.named(name)[source]

Bases: object

For example:

>>> from zope.interface.declarations import named

>>> @named('foo')
... class Foo(object):
...     pass

>>> Foo.__component_name__
'foo'

When registering an adapter or utility component, the registry looks for the __component_name__ attribute and uses it, if no name was explicitly provided.

Deprecated Functions

implements

Caution

Does not work on Python 3. Use the implementer decorator instead.

zope.interface.implements(*interfaces)[source]

Declare interfaces implemented by instances of a class.

Deprecated since version 5.0: This only works for Python 2. The implementer decorator is preferred for all versions.

This function is called in a class definition.

The arguments are one or more interfaces or interface specifications (IDeclaration objects).

The interfaces given (including the interfaces in the specifications) are added to any interfaces previously declared.

Previous declarations include declarations for base classes unless implementsOnly was used.

This function is provided for convenience. It provides a more convenient way to call classImplements. For example:

implements(I1)

is equivalent to calling:

classImplements(C, I1)

after the class has been created.

implementsOnly

Caution

Does not work on Python 3. Use the implementer_only decorator instead.

zope.interface.implementsOnly(*interfaces)[source]

Declare the only interfaces implemented by instances of a class

This function is called in a class definition.

The arguments are one or more interfaces or interface specifications (IDeclaration objects).

Previous declarations including declarations for base classes are overridden.

This function is provided for convenience. It provides a more convenient way to call classImplementsOnly. For example:

implementsOnly(I1)

is equivalent to calling:

classImplementsOnly(I1)

after the class has been created.

classProvides

Caution

Does not work on Python 3. Use the provider decorator instead.

zope.interface.classProvides(*interfaces)[source]

Declare interfaces provided directly by a class

This function is called in a class definition.

The arguments are one or more interfaces or interface specifications (IDeclaration objects).

The given interfaces (including the interfaces in the specifications) are used to create the class’s direct-object interface specification. An error will be raised if the module class has an direct interface specification. In other words, it is an error to call this function more than once in a class definition.

Note that the given interfaces have nothing to do with the interfaces implemented by instances of the class.

This function is provided for convenience. It provides a more convenient way to call directlyProvides for a class. For example:

classProvides(I1)

is equivalent to calling:

directlyProvides(theclass, I1)

after the class has been created.

Querying The Interfaces Of Objects

All of these functions return an IDeclaration. You’ll notice that an IDeclaration is a type of ISpecification, as is zope.interface.Interface, so they share some common behaviour.

interface zope.interface.interfaces.IDeclaration[source]

Extends: zope.interface.interfaces.ISpecification

Interface declaration

Declarations are used to express the interfaces implemented by classes or provided by objects.

__contains__(interface)

Test whether an interface is in the specification

Return true if the given interface is one of the interfaces in the specification and false otherwise.

__iter__()

Return an iterator for the interfaces in the specification

flattened()

Return an iterator of all included and extended interfaces

An iterator is returned for all interfaces either included in or extended by interfaces included in the specifications without duplicates. The interfaces are in “interface resolution order”. The interface resolution order is such that base interfaces are listed after interfaces that extend them and, otherwise, interfaces are included in the order that they were defined in the specification.

__sub__(interfaces)

Create an interface specification with some interfaces excluded

The argument can be an interface or an interface specifications. The interface or interfaces given in a specification are subtracted from the interface specification.

Removing an interface that is not in the specification does not raise an error. Doing so has no effect.

Removing an interface also removes sub-interfaces of the interface.

__add__(interfaces)

Create an interface specification with some interfaces added

The argument can be an interface or an interface specifications. The interface or interfaces given in a specification are added to the interface specification.

Adding an interface that is already in the specification does not raise an error. Doing so has no effect.

__nonzero__()

Return a true value of the interface specification is non-empty

implementedBy

zope.interface.implementedBy(cls)[source]

Return the interfaces implemented for a class’ instances

The value returned is an IDeclaration.

Consider the following example:

>>> from zope.interface import Interface
>>> from zope.interface import implementer
>>> from zope.interface import classImplementsOnly
>>> from zope.interface import implementedBy
>>> class I1(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I2(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I3(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I4(Interface): pass
...
>>> @implementer(I3)
... class A(object):
...     pass
>>> @implementer(I4)
... class B(object):
...     pass
>>> class C(A, B):
...   pass
>>> classImplementsOnly(C, I1, I2)
>>> [i.getName() for i in implementedBy(C)]
['I1', 'I2']

Instances of C provide only I1, I2, and regardless of whatever interfaces instances of A and B implement.

Another example:

>>> from zope.interface import Interface
>>> class I1(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I2(I1): pass
...
>>> class I3(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I4(I3): pass
...
>>> @implementer(I2)
... class C1(object):
...     pass
>>> @implementer(I3)
... class C2(C1):
...     pass
>>> [i.getName() for i in implementedBy(C2)]
['I3', 'I2']

Really, any object should be able to receive a successful answer, even an instance:

>>> class Callable(object):
...     def __call__(self):
...         return self
>>> implementedBy(Callable())
<implementedBy builtins.?>

Note that the name of the spec ends with a ‘?’, because the Callable instance does not have a __name__ attribute.

This also manages storage of implementation specifications.

providedBy

zope.interface.providedBy(ob)[source]

Return the interfaces provided by ob.

If ob is a super object, then only interfaces implemented by the remainder of the classes in the method resolution order are considered. Interfaces directly provided by the object underlying ob are not.

directlyProvidedBy

zope.interface.directlyProvidedBy(object)[source]

Return the interfaces directly provided by the given object

The value returned is an IDeclaration.

Classes

Declarations

Declaration objects implement the API defined by IDeclaration.

class zope.interface.Declaration(*bases)[source]

Bases: zope.interface.interface.Specification

Interface declarations

flattened()[source]

Return an iterator of all included and extended interfaces

Exmples for Declaration.__contains__():

>>> from zope.interface.declarations import Declaration
>>> from zope.interface import Interface
>>> class I1(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I2(I1): pass
...
>>> class I3(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I4(I3): pass
...
>>> spec = Declaration(I2, I3)
>>> spec = Declaration(I4, spec)
>>> int(I1 in spec)
0
>>> int(I2 in spec)
1
>>> int(I3 in spec)
1
>>> int(I4 in spec)
1

Exmples for Declaration.__iter__():

>>> from zope.interface import Interface
>>> class I1(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I2(I1): pass
...
>>> class I3(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I4(I3): pass
...
>>> spec = Declaration(I2, I3)
>>> spec = Declaration(I4, spec)
>>> i = iter(spec)
>>> [x.getName() for x in i]
['I4', 'I2', 'I3']
>>> list(i)
[]

Exmples for Declaration.flattened():

>>> from zope.interface import Interface
>>> class I1(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I2(I1): pass
...
>>> class I3(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I4(I3): pass
...
>>> spec = Declaration(I2, I3)
>>> spec = Declaration(I4, spec)
>>> i = spec.flattened()
>>> [x.getName() for x in i]
['I4', 'I2', 'I3', 'I1', 'Interface']
>>> list(i)
[]

Exmples for Declaration.__sub__():

>>> from zope.interface import Interface
>>> class I1(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I2(I1): pass
...
>>> class I3(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I4(I3): pass
...
>>> spec = Declaration()
>>> [iface.getName() for iface in spec]
[]
>>> spec -= I1
>>> [iface.getName() for iface in spec]
[]
>>> spec -= Declaration(I1, I2)
>>> [iface.getName() for iface in spec]
[]
>>> spec = Declaration(I2, I4)
>>> [iface.getName() for iface in spec]
['I2', 'I4']
>>> [iface.getName() for iface in spec - I4]
['I2']
>>> [iface.getName() for iface in spec - I1]
['I4']
>>> [iface.getName() for iface
...  in spec - Declaration(I3, I4)]
['I2']

Exmples for Declaration.__add__():

>>> from zope.interface import Interface
>>> class I1(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I2(I1): pass
...
>>> class I3(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I4(I3): pass
...
>>> spec = Declaration()
>>> [iface.getName() for iface in spec]
[]
>>> [iface.getName() for iface in spec+I1]
['I1']
>>> [iface.getName() for iface in I1+spec]
['I1']
>>> spec2 = spec
>>> spec += I1
>>> [iface.getName() for iface in spec]
['I1']
>>> [iface.getName() for iface in spec2]
[]
>>> spec2 += Declaration(I3, I4)
>>> [iface.getName() for iface in spec2]
['I3', 'I4']
>>> [iface.getName() for iface in spec+spec2]
['I1', 'I3', 'I4']
>>> [iface.getName() for iface in spec2+spec]
['I3', 'I4', 'I1']

ProvidesClass

zope.interface.declarations.ProvidesClass

alias of zope.interface.Provides

Descriptor semantics (via Provides.__get__):

>>> from zope.interface import Interface
>>> class IFooFactory(Interface):
...     pass
>>> class C(object):
...     pass
>>> from zope.interface.declarations import ProvidesClass
>>> C.__provides__ = ProvidesClass(C, IFooFactory)
>>> [i.getName() for i in C.__provides__]
['IFooFactory']
>>> getattr(C(), '__provides__', 0)
0

Implementation Details

The following section discusses some implementation details and demonstrates their use. You’ll notice that they are all demonstrated using the previously-defined functions.

Provides

zope.interface.Provides(*interfaces)[source]

Cache instance declarations

Instance declarations are shared among instances that have the same declaration. The declarations are cached in a weak value dictionary.

In the examples below, we are going to make assertions about the size of the weakvalue dictionary. For the assertions to be meaningful, we need to force garbage collection to make sure garbage objects are, indeed, removed from the system. Depending on how Python is run, we may need to make multiple calls to be sure. We provide a collect function to help with this:

>>> import gc
>>> def collect():
...     for i in range(4):
...         gc.collect()
>>> collect()
>>> from zope.interface import directlyProvides
>>> from zope.interface.declarations import InstanceDeclarations
>>> before = len(InstanceDeclarations)
>>> class C(object):
...     pass
>>> from zope.interface import Interface
>>> class I(Interface):
...     pass
>>> c1 = C()
>>> c2 = C()
>>> len(InstanceDeclarations) == before
True
>>> directlyProvides(c1, I)
>>> len(InstanceDeclarations) == before + 1
True
>>> directlyProvides(c2, I)
>>> len(InstanceDeclarations) == before + 1
True
>>> del c1
>>> collect()
>>> len(InstanceDeclarations) == before + 1
True
>>> del c2
>>> collect()
>>> len(InstanceDeclarations) == before
True

ObjectSpecification

zope.interface.declarations.ObjectSpecification(direct, cls)[source]

Provide object specifications

These combine information for the object and for it’s classes.

For example:

>>> from zope.interface import Interface
>>> from zope.interface import implementer_only
>>> class I1(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I2(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I3(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I31(I3): pass
...
>>> class I4(Interface): pass
...
>>> class I5(Interface): pass
...
>>> @implementer(I1)
... class A(object):
...     pass
>>> class B(object):
...     __implemented__ = I2
>>> @implementer(I31)
... class C(A, B):
...     pass
>>> c = C()
>>> directlyProvides(c, I4)
>>> [i.getName() for i in providedBy(c)]
['I4', 'I31', 'I1', 'I2']
>>> [i.getName() for i in providedBy(c).flattened()]
['I4', 'I31', 'I3', 'I1', 'I2', 'Interface']
>>> int(I1 in providedBy(c))
1
>>> int(I3 in providedBy(c))
0
>>> int(providedBy(c).extends(I3))
1
>>> int(providedBy(c).extends(I31))
1
>>> int(providedBy(c).extends(I5))
0
>>> @implementer_only(I31)
... class COnly(A, B):
...     pass
>>> @implementer(I5)
... class D(COnly):
...     pass
>>> c = D()
>>> directlyProvides(c, I4)
>>> [i.getName() for i in providedBy(c)]
['I4', 'I5', 'I31']
>>> [i.getName() for i in providedBy(c).flattened()]
['I4', 'I5', 'I31', 'I3', 'Interface']
>>> int(I1 in providedBy(c))
0
>>> int(I3 in providedBy(c))
0
>>> int(providedBy(c).extends(I3))
1
>>> int(providedBy(c).extends(I1))
0
>>> int(providedBy(c).extends(I31))
1
>>> int(providedBy(c).extends(I5))
1

ObjectSpecificationDescriptor

class zope.interface.declarations.ObjectSpecificationDescriptor[source]

Bases: object

Implement the __providedBy__ attribute

The __providedBy__ attribute computes the interfaces provided by an object.

For example:

>>> from zope.interface import Interface
>>> class IFoo(Interface): pass
...
>>> class IFooFactory(Interface): pass
...
>>> @implementer(IFoo)
... @provider(IFooFactory)
... class C(object):
...     pass
>>> [i.getName() for i in C.__providedBy__]
['IFooFactory']
>>> [i.getName() for i in C().__providedBy__]
['IFoo']

Get an ObjectSpecification bound to either an instance or a class, depending on how we were accessed.