Adapter Registry

Adapter registries provide a way to register objects that depend on one or more interface specifications and provide (perhaps indirectly) some interface. In addition, the registrations have names. (You can think of the names as qualifiers of the provided interfaces.)

The term “interface specification” refers both to interfaces and to interface declarations, such as declarations of interfaces implemented by a class.

Single Adapters

Let’s look at a simple example, using a single required specification:

>>> from zope.interface.adapter import AdapterRegistry
>>> import zope.interface

>>> class IRequire1(zope.interface.Interface):
...     pass
>>> class IProvide1(zope.interface.Interface):
...     pass
>>> class IProvide2(IProvide1):
...     pass

>>> registry = AdapterRegistry()

We’ll register an object that depends on IRequire1 and “provides” IProvide2:

>>> registry.register([IRequire1], IProvide2, '', 12)

Given the registration, we can look it up again:

>>> registry.lookup([IRequire1], IProvide2, '')
12

Note that we used an integer in the example. In real applications, one would use some objects that actually depend on or provide interfaces. The registry doesn’t care about what gets registered, so we’ll use integers and strings to keep the examples simple. There is one exception. Registering a value of None unregisters any previously-registered value.

If an object depends on a specification, it can be looked up with a specification that extends the specification that it depends on:

>>> class IRequire2(IRequire1):
...     pass
>>> registry.lookup([IRequire2], IProvide2, '')
12

We can use a class implementation specification to look up the object:

>>> class C2:
...     zope.interface.implements(IRequire2)

>>> registry.lookup([zope.interface.implementedBy(C2)], IProvide2, '')
12

and it can be looked up for interfaces that its provided interface extends:

>>> registry.lookup([IRequire1], IProvide1, '')
12
>>> registry.lookup([IRequire2], IProvide1, '')
12

But if you require a specification that doesn’t extend the specification the object depends on, you won’t get anything:

>>> registry.lookup([zope.interface.Interface], IProvide1, '')

By the way, you can pass a default value to lookup:

>>> registry.lookup([zope.interface.Interface], IProvide1, '', 42)
42

If you try to get an interface the object doesn’t provide, you also won’t get anything:

>>> class IProvide3(IProvide2):
...     pass
>>> registry.lookup([IRequire1], IProvide3, '')

You also won’t get anything if you use the wrong name:

>>> registry.lookup([IRequire1], IProvide1, 'bob')
>>> registry.register([IRequire1], IProvide2, 'bob', "Bob's 12")
>>> registry.lookup([IRequire1], IProvide1, 'bob')
"Bob's 12"

You can leave the name off when doing a lookup:

>>> registry.lookup([IRequire1], IProvide1)
12

If we register an object that provides IProvide1:

>>> registry.register([IRequire1], IProvide1, '', 11)

then that object will be prefered over O(12):

>>> registry.lookup([IRequire1], IProvide1, '')
11

Also, if we register an object for IRequire2, then that will be preferred when using IRequire2:

>>> registry.register([IRequire2], IProvide1, '', 21)
>>> registry.lookup([IRequire2], IProvide1, '')
21

Finding out what, if anything, is registered

We can ask if there is an adapter registered for a collection of interfaces. This is different than lookup, because it looks for an exact match:

>>> print registry.registered([IRequire1], IProvide1)
11

>>> print registry.registered([IRequire1], IProvide2)
12

>>> print registry.registered([IRequire1], IProvide2, 'bob')
Bob's 12


>>> print registry.registered([IRequire2], IProvide1)
21

>>> print registry.registered([IRequire2], IProvide2)
None

In the last example, None was returned because nothing was registered exactly for the given interfaces.

lookup1

Lookup of single adapters is common enough that there is a specialized version of lookup that takes a single required interface:

>>> registry.lookup1(IRequire2, IProvide1, '')
21
>>> registry.lookup1(IRequire2, IProvide1)
21

Actual Adaptation

The adapter registry is intended to support adaptation, where one object that implements an interface is adapted to another object that supports a different interface. The adapter registry supports the computation of adapters. In this case, we have to register adapter factories:

 >>> class IR(zope.interface.Interface):
 ...     pass

 >>> class X:
 ...     zope.interface.implements(IR)

 >>> class Y:
 ...     zope.interface.implements(IProvide1)
 ...     def __init__(self, context):
 ...         self.context = context

>>> registry.register([IR], IProvide1, '', Y)

In this case, we registered a class as the factory. Now we can call queryAdapter to get the adapted object:

>>> x = X()
>>> y = registry.queryAdapter(x, IProvide1)
>>> y.__class__.__name__
'Y'
>>> y.context is x
True

We can register and lookup by name too:

>>> class Y2(Y):
...     pass

>>> registry.register([IR], IProvide1, 'bob', Y2)
>>> y = registry.queryAdapter(x, IProvide1, 'bob')
>>> y.__class__.__name__
'Y2'
>>> y.context is x
True

When the adapter factory produces None, then this is treated as if no adapter has been found. This allows us to prevent adaptation (when desired) and let the adapter factory determine whether adaptation is possible based on the state of the object being adapted:

>>> def factory(context):
...     if context.name == 'object':
...         return 'adapter'
...     return None

>>> class Object(object):
...     zope.interface.implements(IR)
...     name = 'object'

>>> registry.register([IR], IProvide1, 'conditional', factory)
>>> obj = Object()
>>> registry.queryAdapter(obj, IProvide1, 'conditional')
'adapter'
>>> obj.name = 'no object'
>>> registry.queryAdapter(obj, IProvide1, 'conditional') is None
True
>>> registry.queryAdapter(obj, IProvide1, 'conditional', 'default')
'default'

An alternate method that provides the same function as queryAdapter() is adapter_hook():

>>> y = registry.adapter_hook(IProvide1, x)
>>> y.__class__.__name__
'Y'
>>> y.context is x
True
>>> y = registry.adapter_hook(IProvide1, x, 'bob')
>>> y.__class__.__name__
'Y2'
>>> y.context is x
True

The adapter_hook() simply switches the order of the object and interface arguments. It is used to hook into the interface call mechanism.

Default Adapters

Sometimes, you want to provide an adapter that will adapt anything. For that, provide None as the required interface:

>>> registry.register([None], IProvide1, '', 1)

then we can use that adapter for interfaces we don’t have specific adapters for:

>>> class IQ(zope.interface.Interface):
...     pass
>>> registry.lookup([IQ], IProvide1, '')
1

Of course, specific adapters are still used when applicable:

>>> registry.lookup([IRequire2], IProvide1, '')
21

Class adapters

You can register adapters for class declarations, which is almost the same as registering them for a class:

>>> registry.register([zope.interface.implementedBy(C2)], IProvide1, '', 'C21')
>>> registry.lookup([zope.interface.implementedBy(C2)], IProvide1, '')
'C21'

Dict adapters

At some point it was impossible to register dictionary-based adapters due a bug. Let’s make sure this works now:

>>> adapter = {}
>>> registry.register((), IQ, '', adapter)
>>> registry.lookup((), IQ, '') is adapter
True

Unregistering

You can unregister by registering None, rather than an object:

>>> registry.register([zope.interface.implementedBy(C2)], IProvide1, '', None)
>>> registry.lookup([zope.interface.implementedBy(C2)], IProvide1, '')
21

Of course, this means that None can’t be registered. This is an exception to the statement, made earlier, that the registry doesn’t care what gets registered.

Multi-adapters

You can adapt multiple specifications:

>>> registry.register([IRequire1, IQ], IProvide2, '', '1q2')
>>> registry.lookup([IRequire1, IQ], IProvide2, '')
'1q2'
>>> registry.lookup([IRequire2, IQ], IProvide1, '')
'1q2'

>>> class IS(zope.interface.Interface):
...     pass
>>> registry.lookup([IRequire2, IS], IProvide1, '')

>>> class IQ2(IQ):
...     pass

>>> registry.lookup([IRequire2, IQ2], IProvide1, '')
'1q2'

>>> registry.register([IRequire1, IQ2], IProvide2, '', '1q22')
>>> registry.lookup([IRequire2, IQ2], IProvide1, '')
'1q22'

Multi-adaptation

You can adapt multiple objects:

>>> class Q:
...     zope.interface.implements(IQ)

As with single adapters, we register a factory, which is often a class:

>>> class IM(zope.interface.Interface):
...     pass
>>> class M:
...     zope.interface.implements(IM)
...     def __init__(self, x, q):
...         self.x, self.q = x, q
>>> registry.register([IR, IQ], IM, '', M)

And then we can call queryMultiAdapter to compute an adapter:

>>> q = Q()
>>> m = registry.queryMultiAdapter((x, q), IM)
>>> m.__class__.__name__
'M'
>>> m.x is x and m.q is q
True

and, of course, we can use names:

>>> class M2(M):
...     pass
>>> registry.register([IR, IQ], IM, 'bob', M2)
>>> m = registry.queryMultiAdapter((x, q), IM, 'bob')
>>> m.__class__.__name__
'M2'
>>> m.x is x and m.q is q
True

Default Adapters

As with single adapters, you can define default adapters by specifying None for the first specification:

>>> registry.register([None, IQ], IProvide2, '', 'q2')
>>> registry.lookup([IS, IQ], IProvide2, '')
'q2'

Null Adapters

You can also adapt no specification:

>>> registry.register([], IProvide2, '', 2)
>>> registry.lookup([], IProvide2, '')
2
>>> registry.lookup([], IProvide1, '')
2

Listing named adapters

Adapters are named. Sometimes, it’s useful to get all of the named adapters for given interfaces:

>>> adapters = list(registry.lookupAll([IRequire1], IProvide1))
>>> adapters.sort()
>>> assert adapters == [(u'', 11), (u'bob', "Bob's 12")]

This works for multi-adapters too:

>>> registry.register([IRequire1, IQ2], IProvide2, 'bob', '1q2 for bob')
>>> adapters = list(registry.lookupAll([IRequire2, IQ2], IProvide1))
>>> adapters.sort()
>>> assert adapters == [(u'', '1q22'), (u'bob', '1q2 for bob')]

And even null adapters:

>>> registry.register([], IProvide2, 'bob', 3)
>>> adapters = list(registry.lookupAll([], IProvide1))
>>> adapters.sort()
>>> assert adapters == [(u'', 2), (u'bob', 3)]

Subscriptions

Normally, we want to look up an object that most closely matches a specification. Sometimes, we want to get all of the objects that match some specification. We use subscriptions for this. We subscribe objects against specifications and then later find all of the subscribed objects:

>>> registry.subscribe([IRequire1], IProvide2, 'sub12 1')
>>> registry.subscriptions([IRequire1], IProvide2)
['sub12 1']

Note that, unlike regular adapters, subscriptions are unnamed.

You can have multiple subscribers for the same specification:

>>> registry.subscribe([IRequire1], IProvide2, 'sub12 2')
>>> registry.subscriptions([IRequire1], IProvide2)
['sub12 1', 'sub12 2']

If subscribers are registered for the same required interfaces, they are returned in the order of definition.

You can register subscribers for all specifications using None:

>>> registry.subscribe([None], IProvide1, 'sub_1')
>>> registry.subscriptions([IRequire2], IProvide1)
['sub_1', 'sub12 1', 'sub12 2']

Note that the new subscriber is returned first. Subscribers defined for less general required interfaces are returned before subscribers for more general interfaces.

Subscriptions may be combined over multiple compatible specifications:

>>> registry.subscriptions([IRequire2], IProvide1)
['sub_1', 'sub12 1', 'sub12 2']
>>> registry.subscribe([IRequire1], IProvide1, 'sub11')
>>> registry.subscriptions([IRequire2], IProvide1)
['sub_1', 'sub12 1', 'sub12 2', 'sub11']
>>> registry.subscribe([IRequire2], IProvide2, 'sub22')
>>> registry.subscriptions([IRequire2], IProvide1)
['sub_1', 'sub12 1', 'sub12 2', 'sub11', 'sub22']
>>> registry.subscriptions([IRequire2], IProvide2)
['sub12 1', 'sub12 2', 'sub22']

Subscriptions can be on multiple specifications:

>>> registry.subscribe([IRequire1, IQ], IProvide2, 'sub1q2')
>>> registry.subscriptions([IRequire1, IQ], IProvide2)
['sub1q2']

As with single subscriptions and non-subscription adapters, you can specify None for the first required interface, to specify a default:

>>> registry.subscribe([None, IQ], IProvide2, 'sub_q2')
>>> registry.subscriptions([IS, IQ], IProvide2)
['sub_q2']
>>> registry.subscriptions([IRequire1, IQ], IProvide2)
['sub_q2', 'sub1q2']

You can have subscriptions that are independent of any specifications:

>>> list(registry.subscriptions([], IProvide1))
[]

>>> registry.subscribe([], IProvide2, 'sub2')
>>> registry.subscriptions([], IProvide1)
['sub2']
>>> registry.subscribe([], IProvide1, 'sub1')
>>> registry.subscriptions([], IProvide1)
['sub2', 'sub1']
>>> registry.subscriptions([], IProvide2)
['sub2']

Unregistering subscribers

We can unregister subscribers. When unregistering a subscriber, we can unregister a specific subscriber:

>>> registry.unsubscribe([IRequire1], IProvide1, 'sub11')
>>> registry.subscriptions([IRequire1], IProvide1)
['sub_1', 'sub12 1', 'sub12 2']

If we don’t specify a value, then all subscribers matching the given interfaces will be unsubscribed:

>>> registry.unsubscribe([IRequire1], IProvide2)
>>> registry.subscriptions([IRequire1], IProvide1)
['sub_1']

Subscription adapters

We normally register adapter factories, which then allow us to compute adapters, but with subscriptions, we get multiple adapters. Here’s an example of multiple-object subscribers:

>>> registry.subscribe([IR, IQ], IM, M)
>>> registry.subscribe([IR, IQ], IM, M2)

>>> subscribers = registry.subscribers((x, q), IM)
>>> len(subscribers)
2
>>> class_names = [s.__class__.__name__ for s in subscribers]
>>> class_names.sort()
>>> class_names
['M', 'M2']
>>> [(s.x is x and s.q is q) for s in subscribers]
[True, True]

Adapter factory subscribers can’t return None values:

>>> def M3(x, y):
...     return None

>>> registry.subscribe([IR, IQ], IM, M3)
>>> subscribers = registry.subscribers((x, q), IM)
>>> len(subscribers)
2

Handlers

A handler is a subscriber factory that doesn’t produce any normal output. It returns None. A handler is unlike adapters in that it does all of its work when the factory is called.

To register a handler, simply provide None as the provided interface:

>>> def handler(event):
...     print 'handler', event

>>> registry.subscribe([IRequire1], None, handler)
>>> registry.subscriptions([IRequire1], None) == [handler]
True

Components

A zope.interface.registry.Components object implements the zope.interface.interfaces.IComponents interface. This interface uses multiple adapter registries to implement multiple higher-level concerns (utilities, adapters and handlers), while also providing event notifications and query capabilities.